Female Topics

Endometrial Cancer: What are its Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment?

By S.I. (staff writer) , published on March 22, 2023

Medicine Telehealth Health cancer uterus


What is Endometrial Cancer?

Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that affects the inner lining of the uterus [1]. It is the most common type of uterine cancer and can affect women of any age globally [2].


It can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy. Early detection and treatment can improve the prognosis and reduce the risk of recurrence.


Women should pay attention to any unusual changes in their menstrual cycle, the amount of vaginal bleeding, or any other abnormal vaginal discharge. You should discuss any abdominal or back pain with a doctor.


A uterine lining biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis if endometrial cancer is suspected. It is important to seek medical attention early to ensure the best possible outcome.



What are the Symptoms of Endometrial Cancer?

Every year endometrial cancer affects 142,000 women, and most experience symptoms at an early stage [3]. Symptoms of this condition may include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and vaginal discharge.


Other signs may include pain during sexual intercourse, urination, and fatigue. It is important to note that these symptoms may be caused by other conditions and do not necessarily indicate the presence of endometrial cancer.


Abnormal vaginal bleeding is another common symptom of endometrial cancer. This may include heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding after menopause, and bleeding or spotting between periods.


Pelvic pain may also be present, as well as a vaginal discharge that may be tinged with blood. Other symptoms may include pain during sexual intercourse, pain during urination, and fatigue.


It is important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by other conditions and do not necessarily indicate the presence of endometrial cancer.



What are the Causes of Endometrial Cancer?

The most common causes of endometrial cancer include obesity, late menopause, hormone therapy, diabetes, and a family history of the disease. In addition, certain genetic mutations, such as those involving the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, can increase the risk of endometrial cancer.


Other risk factors include taking estrogen without progesterone, diabetes, socioeconomic status, arthritis, [4] and having a history of pelvic radiation treatment. Ultimately, it is important to note that the exact cause of endometrial cancer is unknown.



Treatment Options for Endometrial Cancer

Treatment options for endometrial cancer vary depending on the cancer stage and the patient's overall health. Common treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted drug therapy.


Surgery is often the first line of treatment and may involve removing the uterus (hysterectomy) and surrounding tissues. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be used in addition to surgery or as an alternative treatment option.


Hormone and targeted drug therapy may also help slow or stop cancer growth. However, newer techniques are being developed which will work on the molecular level and only target the cancerous cell [5].






1- Endometrial Cancer: Introduction - Health Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center

2- Endometrial cancer - PubMed (nih.gov)

3- Endometrial cancer - ScienceDirect

4- Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer2 | JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Oxford Academic (oup.com)

5- Treatment strategies for endometrial cancer: current practice and perspective - PubMed (nih.gov)

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