Infections - Prevention, Diagnosis & Treatment

What Is Condyloma & How It Can Be Prevented?

By H.S. (staff writer) , published on September 23, 2021

Medicine Telehealth Health

Condyloma is one of the sexually transmitted diseases characterized by wart-like growths raised on the skin around the vulva, glans penis, and anus (lower rectum). Condyloma is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). If your partner has HPV, you’re at risk of developing an STD. Genital warts look like lesions that appear outside or inside the vagina, in the cervix, and in the anal area [1].


What Are The Symptoms Of Condyloma?

Genital warts can cause no symptoms at all. They appear as pink bumps or lesions in the affected area. The nature of genital warts is different in males as well as females [2]. The symptoms include:

  • Itching

  • Burning

  • Pain during intercourse

  • Bleeding

  • Discharge from penis or vagina

  • Discomfort

  • Moisture in the anal canal


What Are The Causes Of Condyloma?

There are more than 100 strains of HPV, but 90% of condyloma strains are caused by two subtypes of HPV, mainly subtypes 6 and 11. Condyloma is also caused by sexual contact or skin-to-skin contact.

HPV attacks the immune cells but those, who have strong immunity, are not attacked by HPV. Rather, it is killed by them [3].

The risks for genital warts increase by:

  • Having intercourse without any protection

  • Viral infections, e.g., herpes or HIV


Risk Factors For Condyloma:

Sexually attracted people are at great risk of developing condyloma. Other risk factors include:

  • Having a sexual infection or STD other than condyloma.

  • Unprotected sex.

  • Having intercourse with multiple partners.

  • Unfamiliar with any sexual history of your partner.

  • Having a weakened or compromised immune system.

  • Organ transfusion also increases the risks for condyloma [4].


Can Condyloma Be Treated?

If you experience any genital warts, you should immediately go to your general practitioner. However, many treatments are available for genital warts, but you should know that “prevention is better than cure.”

The treatments for genital warts include:

  • TCA (trichloroacetic acid).

  • Creams (applying creams on the affected area).

  • Freezing (the warts are frozen with liquid nitrogen).

  • Electrocautery (Removing warts by electric current).

  • Cutting warts (Excision, surgery).

  • Laser treatments [5].


What Can You Do For The Prevention Of Condyloma?

When you know the early signs and symptoms of condyloma, taking precautionary measures will be easy. Always try to have sexual contact with only one partner who has no sexual history. Avoid sexual contact with multiple partners, or else you may have serious effects of HPV.

  • Vaccination: The vaccination for HPV is Gardasil. Gardasil 9 has recently been proved to be efficient for both females and males aged between 10-45 for protection against condyloma and cervical cancer [6].

Routine vaccination for boys and girls between ages 10-12 years has also been suggested by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is necessary for both girls and boys to get vaccinated before their first sexual contact.

  • Make Sure You Have Safe Sex: The use of dental dams or condoms is crucial to avoid any sexually transmitted disease (STD). If your partner has some HPV-related disease, it is necessary for you to avoid sexual contact with that person. Also, if you see any warts on their genitalia, avoid them.




  1. Braaten, K. P. & Laufer, M. R. Human Papillomavirus (HPV), HPV-Related Disease, and the HPV Vaccine. Rev. Obstet. Gynecol. 1, 2–10 (2008).

  2. MANHART, LISA E. MPH*†; KOUTSKY, LAURA A. PhD† Do Condoms Prevent Genital HPV Infection, External Genital Warts, or Cervical Neoplasia?, Sexually Transmitted Diseases: November 2002 - Volume 29 - Issue 11 - p 725-735. 

  3. Patel, R. V., Yanofsky, V. R. & Goldenberg, G. Genital warts: A comprehensive review. J. Clin. Aesthet. Dermatol. 5, 25–36 (2012).

  4. Newton, D. C. & McCabe, M. Effects of sexually transmitted infection status, relationship status, and disclosure status on sexual self-concept. J. Sex Res. 45, 187–192 (2008).

  5. Wiley DJ, Douglas J, Beutner K, Cox T, Fife K, Moscicki AB, Fukumoto L. External genital warts: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2002 Oct 15;35(Supplement_2):S210-24.

  6. Yu Y, Guo J, Li D, Liu Y, Yu Y, Wang L. Development of a human papillomavirus type 6/11 vaccine candidate for the prevention of condyloma acuminatum. Vaccine. 2018 Aug 6;36(32):4927-34.

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